Bohemia Mine Owners Association Inc.

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Good Information

Placer mining (pronounced "plass-er") refers to the mining of alluvial deposits for minerals. This may be done by open-pit (also called open-cast mining) or by various forms of tunneling into ancient riverbeds. Excavation may be accomplished using water pressure (hydraulic mining), surface excavating equipment or tunneling equipment.

The name derives from Spanish, placera, meaning "alluvial sand." It refers to mining the precious metal deposits (particularly gold and gemstones) found in alluvial deposits—deposits of sand and gravel in modern or ancient stream beds. The metal or gemstones, having been moved by stream flow from an original source such as a vein, is typically only a minuscule portion of the total deposit. The containing material may be too loose to safely mine by tunneling. Where water under pressure is available, water under pressure may be used to mine, move, and separate the precious material from the deposit.

Placers supplied most of the gold for a large part of the ancient world. Hydraulic mining methods such as hushing were used widely by the Romans across their empire, but especially in the gold fields of northern Spain after its conquest by Augustus in 25 BC. One of the largest sites was at Las Medulas, where seven 30 mile long aqueducts were used to work the alluvial gold deposits through the first century AD. (Inclusions of platinum-group metals in a very large proportion of gold items indicate that the gold was largely derived from placer or alluvial deposits. Platinum group metals are seldom found with gold in hardrock reef or vein deposits.) In North America, placer mining was famous in the context of several gold rushes, particularly the California Gold Rush, the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush and the Klondike Gold Rush. Placer mining continues in many areas of the world as a source of diamonds, industrial minerals and metals, gems (in Myanmar and Sri Lanka), platinum, and of gold (in the Yukon, Alaska and British Columbia).


The simplest technique to extract gold from placer ore is panning. In panning, some mined ore is placed in a large metal or plastic pan, combined with a generous amount of water, and agitated so that the gold particles, being of higher density than the other material, settle to the bottom of the pan. The lighter gangue material such as sand, mud and gravel are then washed over the side of the pan, leaving the gold behind. Once a placer deposit is located by gold panning, the miner usually shifts to equipment that can treat volumes of sand and gravel more quickly and efficiently.

The same principle may be employed on a larger scale by constructing a short sluice box, with barriers along the bottom to trap the heavier gold particles as water washes them and the other material along the box. This method better suits excavation with shovels or similar implements to feed ore into the device. Similar in principle to a sluice is a rocker, a cradle-like piece of equipment that could be rocked like a cradle to sift sands through screens, which was introduced by Chinese miners in British Columbia and Australia, where the practice was referred to as "rocking the golden baby". . Another Chinese technique was the use of blankets to filter sand and gravels, catching fine gold in the fabric's weave, then burning the blankets to smelt the gold. Chinese were noted for the thoroughness of their placer extraction techniques, which included hand-washing of individual rocks as well as the complete displacement of streambeds and advanced flume and ditching techniques which became copied by other miners.

A trommel is composed of a slightly-inclined rotating metal tube (the 'scrubber section') with a screen at its discharge end. Lifter bars, sometimes in the form of bolted in angle iron, are attached to the interior of the scrubber section. The ore is fed into the elevated end of the trommel. Water (often under pressure) is provided to the scrubber and screen sections and the combination of water and mechanical action frees the valuable minerals from the ore. The mineral containing ore that passes through the screen is then further concentrated in smaller devices such as sluices and jigs. The larger pieces of ore that do not pass through the screen can be carried to a waste stack by a conveyor.


Although not required, the used process water may be continuously recycled and the ore from which the sought after minerals has been extracted ("the tailings") can be reclaimed. While these recycling and reclamation processes are more common in modern placer mining operations they are still not universally done.

In earlier times the process water was not generally recycled and the spent ore was not reclaimed. The remains of a Roman alluvial gold mine at Las Médulas are so spectacular as to justify the site being designated UNESCO World Heritage status. The methods used by the Roman miners are fully described by Pliny the Elder in his work Naturalis Historia published in about 77 AD. The author was a Procurator in the region and so probably witnessed large-scale hydraulic mining of the placer deposits there. He also added that the local lake Curacado had been heavily silted by the mining methods.

Environmental activists describe the hydraulic mining form of placer mining as environmentally destructive because of the large amounts of silt that it adds to previously clear running streams. Most placer mines today use settling ponds, if only to ensure that they have sufficient water to run their sluicing operations.

In California, from 1853 to 1884, hydraulic mining of placers removed an enormous amount of material from the gold fields, material that was carried downstream and raised the level of the Central Valley by some seven feet in some areas and settled in a huge layer at the bottom of San Francisco Bay.[citation needed] The process raised an opposition calling themselves the "Anti-Debris Association". In January of 1884, a United States District Court banned the flushing of debris into streams, and the hydraulic mining mania in California's gold country came to an end.

A Little Bit, o info “Bout Gold and Minerals”

Gold is the most malleable and ductile metal. One ounce of gold can be beaten out to 300 ft2. Gold is a good conductor of electricity and heat. It is not affected by exposure to air or to most reagents. It is inert and a good reflector of infrared radiation. Gold is usually alloyed to increase its strength. Pure gold is measured in troy weight, but when gold is alloyed with other metals the term karat is used to express the amount of gold present.

1 troy ounce = 31.1034807 grams
1 troy ounce = 480 grains
1 troy ounce = 20 pennyweights
32.15 troy ounces = 1 kilogram
32,150 troy ounces = 1 metric ton (1,000 kilos)

 Karats to Gold Percentage
10K .416                                                                                                                                                           
12K .500
14K .585
18K .750
22K .916
24K 100%

DWT is an abbreviation for penny weight.
1 oz.= 20 DWT
20=1 oz.

Specific Gravity Of Minerals: The specific gravity of a substance is the ratio of its weight to the weight of an equal volume of water.
Water weight = 8.34 pounds per imperial gallon.                                                   2.7 - rock
2.7 - quartz
4.2 - copper
4.3 - garnet
5.1 - pyrite -- 5.1 - magnetite
5.3 - hematite
7.3 - tin
7.5 - galena
7.9 - iron
10.5 - silver
11.3 - lead
13.6 - mercury
19.2 - gold
21.5 – platinum

Mineral Abbreviations

Magnesium - Mg
Aluminium - Al
Iron - Fe
Cobalt - Co
Nickel - Ni
Copper - Cu
Zinc - Zn
Molybdenum - Mo
Rhodium - Rh
Palladium - Pd
Silver - Ag
Cadmium - Cd
Indium - In
Tin - Sn
Tantalum - Ta
Tungsten - W
Iridium - Ir
Platinum - Pt
Gold - Au
Mercury – Hg

Mining Talk & Terminology

Symbols & Meanings

ADIT. A nearly horizontal passage driven from the surface to the mine workings.

AIR DRILLING. Rotary drilling using compressed air.

ALLUVIAL DEPOSIT. Sometimes referred to as placer. Sand, gravel etc, removed from a parent rock by water, time and errosion and deposited at a distance location.

ANTICLINE. Upward fold or arch in the rock strata.

ASSAY. The testing of an ore to determine the content of valuable minerals. Can be Chemical, Spectrographic, or Fire Assay.

ASSESMENT WORK. Work that is required to maintain one property or claim. The value is set by government standards. Individual Claim owners and companies must spent a certain amount of dollars by, mapping, testing, trenching etc. or pay the government maintenance fees.

ATTITUDE. Direction and degree of a dip of a structure. This could be a vein, lode or zone of mineralisation. Some call it dip and strike.

AURIFEROUS. This means gold bearing material

BASAL TILL. Clay deposit material left along at the base of a glacier.

BASALT. Fine grained, darker-coloured igneous rock. Old lava beds that have hardened.

BASE METALS. Commercial (non precious) metals such as lead, zinc, copper or nickle.

BEDROCK. The solid base of earth under the over burden and soils or gravels.

BITUMINOUS COAL. A middle rank coal formed by pressure and heat on lignite. Usually has a high Btu value (british thermal unit) and sometimes know as soft coal.

BOREHOLE. The hole that is made from drilling a well, core etc.

BTU. British thermal unit. The amount of energy that is required to raise one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit.

CALORIFIC VALUE. The amount of heat that can be obtained from one pound of coal or oil measured in BTU's.

CAMBRIAN. The earliest period of the Palaeozoic era to which systems of rock may be assigned.

CARBONATES. Minerals consisting of carbonates of calcium, iron or magnesium.

CLAIM. Claims are parcels of land that are staked by companies or individuals for the purpose of exploring and mining. Depending on the area and countries they are measured off in different sizes of acreage.

CONCENTRATE. A product that has the valuable material after all the wasgte has been eliminated.

CORE. Sometimes called core sample. A sample of rock that has been drill out of the area of interest.

CRETACEOUS. A period in history from 130 to 60 million years ago.

CUT OFF. The lowest the grade of ore that can be mined profitably.

DEPOSIT. An area that has a quantity of ore or other material that is deemed to be mineable.

DEVONIAN. A period from about 400 to 360 million years ago.

DIAMOND DRILLING. A rotary drill which cuts by abrasion rather than percussion. The bit is of diamond tips.

DREDGING. A means of extracting gold bearing materials or any other material from under water.

ELUVIAL. Material that has been moved from it's source via time and water. Most placer mines are eluvial.

EXTRACTION. The process of taking out the good ore from the waste materials.

FAULT ZONE. A fault, instead of being a single clean fracture, may be a zone hundreds or thousands of feet wide. The fault zone consists of numerous interlacing small faults or a confused zone of gouge, breccia, or mylonite.

FERROUS. Any mineral that containing iron.

FISSURE. A crack or fracture in rocks.

FLOAT. Pieces rock which become separated from the main body due to time and weathering.

FLUME. Used by the old timers, flumes were built to divert water from a source to where the mining was taking place. Like old wooded aquaducts.

GEIGER COUNTER. A device used to find and sense radioactive mineral.

GEOCHEMICAL. The study of the chemical composition of rocks, soil and other sediments.

GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. The drilling surface rock outcroppings for the purpose of exploratory developement.

GRAB SAMPLE. Sample of rock or material grabbed at random to be analyzed.

IN SITU. In a natural or original position.

INDUCED POLARISATION. A geophysical prospecting method of passing an electrical current through the ground and measuring the effect of rocks and minerals in its path.

INDUSTRIAL MINERALS. Non metalic. Examples: Salts, silica, gravels etc.

INTERMEDIATE ROCKS. Igneous rocks containing between 52 and 66 per cent silica.Between the chemical composition of acid and basic rocks.

JIG. A machine used to collect concentates of ore by water pulsation.

LEACHING. A process of chemical extration of minerals from ore material. Example: Gold is extracted using the heap leach method.

LODE. Mineral deposit contained in solid rock.

ORE RESERVE. The amount of ore that is available for extraction.

OVERBURDEN. Material such us dirt, clay and sand that cover e surface area.

PALEOZOIC. The time between the Pre Cambrian and the Mesozoic.

PAYDIRT. The pay. The material washed in sluicing that contains the gold.

PERCUSSION DRILLING. A method of drilling process that involves hammering the drill bit down the hole.

PERMIAN. A time period from about 290 to 240 million years ago.

PLACER. Referred to mostly in gold. Mining the surface. Eluvial type mining.

PYRITES. A hard, heavy, shiny, yellow mineral, FeS2 or iron disulfide. generally Also called iron pyrites, mica pyrites, fool's gold, sulfur balls.

QUATERNARY. A time period dating from about 1.8 million years ago to the present.

ROTARY DRILLING. A drilling method where the drill pipe and bit is rotated and allowed to drill it's way down.

ROYALTIES. Money owed to the claim holder or owner. NSR (net smelter royalty)

SHAFT. A vertical excavation used for the purpose of opening a mine.

SHOOT. A concentration of mineral values.

SLAG. The waste product glass and gangue from smelting.

SLUICE. A long trough with riffles used to catch gold.

TAILINGS. Material left over after the rock has been processed of it's ore.

TERTIARY. A time dating back, 65 to 2 million years ago.

TROMMEL. A machine that washes and classifies placer material by rotation.

ULTRABASIC. Igneous rock containing less than 45 per cent silica.

ULTRAMAFIC. Igneous rock composed essentially of iron and magnesium.

VEIN. A fracture or crack in a rock that contains mineralized material.


Underground hard rock mining refers to various underground mining techniques used to excavate hard minerals, mainly those minerals containing metals such as gold, copper, zinc, nickel and lead, but also involves using the same techniques for excavating gems such as diamonds. In contrast soft rock mining refers to excavation of softer minerals such as salt, coal, or oil sands.

Accessing underground ore can be achieved via a decline (ramp), inclined vertical shaft or adit.
* Declines can be a spiral tunnel which circles either the flank of the deposit or circles around the deposit. The decline begins with a box cut, which is the portal to the surface. Depending on the amount of overburden and quality of bedrock, a galvanized steel culvert may be required for safety purposes. They may also be started into the wall of an open cut mine.
* Shafts are vertical excavations sunk adjacent to an ore body. Shafts are sunk for ore bodies where haulage to surface via truck is not economical. Shaft haulage is more economical than truck haulage at depth, and a mine may have both a decline and a ramp.
* Adits are horizontal excavations into the side of a hill or mountain. They are used for horizontal or near-horizontal ore bodies where there is no need for a ramp or shaft.

Declines are often started from the side of the high wall of an open cut mine when the ore body is of a payable grade sufficient to support an underground mining operation but the strip ratio has become too great to support open cast extraction methods. Levels are excavated horizontally off the decline or shaft to access the ore body. Stopes are then excavated perpendicular (or near perpendicular) to the level into the ore.


There are two principal phases of underground mining: development mining and production mining.

Development mining is composed of excavation almost entirely in (non-valuable) waste rock in order to gain access to the orebody. There are five steps in development mining: remove previously blasted material (muck out round), drill rock face, load explosives, blast explosives, and support excavation.

Production mining is further broken down into two methods, long hole and short hole. Short hole mining is similar to development mining, except that it occurs in ore. There are several different methods of long hole mining. Typically long hole mining requires two excavations within the ore at different elevations below surface, (15 m – 30 m apart). Holes are drilled between the two excavations and loaded with explosives. The holes are blasted and the ore is removed from the bottom excavation.


One of the most important aspects of underground hard rock mining is ventilation. Ventilation is required to clear toxic fumes from blasting and removing exhaust fumes from diesel equipment. In deep hot mines ventilation is also required for cooling the workplace for miners. Ventilation raises are excavated to provide ventilation for the workplaces, and can be modified to be used as escape routes in case of emergency. The main sources of heat in underground hard rock mines are virgin rock temperature, machinery, auto compression, and fissure water although other small factors contribute like people breathing, inefficiency of machinery, and blasting operations.


Some means of support is required in order to maintain the stability of the openings that are excavated. This support comes in two forms, local support and area support.

Area ground support is used to prevent major ground failure. Holes are drilled into the back (ceiling) and walls and a long metal bar (or rock bolt) is installed to hold the ground together. There are three categories of rock bolts, determined by the way they behave in the rock. They are:

* Mechanical bolts:
- Point anchor bolts (or expansion shell bolts) are a common style of area ground support. A point anchor bolt is a metal bar between 20 mm – 25 mm in diameter, and between 1 m – 4 m in length (the size is determined by the mine's engineering department). There is an expansion shell at the end of the bolt which is inserted into the hole. As the bolt is tightened by the installation drill the expansion shell expands and the bolt tightens holding the rock together. Mechanical bolts are considered temporary support as their lifespan is reduced by corrosion as they are not grouted.

* Grouted bolts:
- Resin grouted rebar is used in areas which require more support than a point anchor bolt can give. The rebar used is of similar size as a point anchor bolt but does not have an expansion shell. Once the hole for the rebar is drilled, cartridges of epoxy resin are installed in the hole. The rebar bolt is installed after the resin and spun by the installation drill. This opens the resin cartridge and mixes it. Once the resin hardens the drill spinning tightens the rebar bolt holding the rock together. Resin grouted rebar is considered a permanent ground support with a lifespan of 20–30 years.
- Cable bolts are used to bind large masses of rock in the hanging wall and around large excavations. Cable bolts are much larger than standard rock bolts and rebar, usually between 10–25 metres long. Cable bolts are grouted with a cement grout.

* Friction bolts:
- Split-sets are much easier to install than mechanical bolts or grouted bolts. The bolt is hammered into the drill hole, which has a smaller diameter than the bolt. Pressure from the bolt on the wall holds the rock together. Split-set bolts are particularly susceptible to corrosion and rust from water unless they are grouted.
- Swellex is similar to a split-set, except the bolt diameter is smaller than the hole diameter. High pressure water is injected into the bolt to expand the bolt diameter to hold the rock together. Like the split-set, swellex is poorly protected from corrosion and rust.

Local ground support is used to prevent smaller rocks from falling from the backs and walls. Not all excavations require local ground support.

* Mechanical bolts:
- Point anchor bolts (or expansion shell bolts) are a common style of area ground support. A point anchor bolt is a metal bar between 20 mm – 25 mm in diameter, and between 1 m – 4 m in length (the size is determined by the mine's engineering department). There is an expansion shell at the end of the bolt which is inserted into the hole. As the bolt is tightened by the installation drill the expansion shell expands and the bolt tightens holding the rock together. Mechanical bolts are considered temporary support as their lifespan is reduced by corrosion as they are not grouted.

* Welded Wire Mesh is a metal screen with 10 cm x 10 cm (4 inch) openings. It is held to the backs using point anchor bolts or resin grouted rebar.
* Shotcrete is a spray on concrete which coats the backs and walls preventing smaller rocks from falling. Shotcrete thickness can be between 50 mm – 100 mm.
* Latex Membranes can be sprayed on the backs and walls similar to shotcrete, but in smaller amounts.


* Cut and Fill mining is a method of short hole mining used steeply dipping or irregular ore zones, in particular where the hanging wall limits the use of long hole methods. The ore is mined in horizontal or slightly inclined slices, and filled with waste rock, sand or tailings. Either fill option may be consolidated with concrete, or left unconsolidated. Cut and fill mining is an expensive but selective method, with low ore loss and dilution.

* Drift and Fill is similar to cut and fill, except it is used in ore zones which are wider than the method of drifting will allow to be mined. In this case the first drift is developed in the ore, and is backfilled using consolidated fill. The second drift is driven adjacent to the first drift. This carries on until the ore zone is mined out to its full width, at which time the second cut is started atop of the first cut.

* Shrinkage Stoping is a short hole mining method which is suitable for steeply dipping orebodies. The method is similar to cut and fill mining with the exception that after being blasted broken ore is left in the stope where it is used to support the surrounding rock and as a platform to work off of. Only enough ore is removed from the stope to allow for drilling and blasting the next slice. The stope is emptied when all of the ore has been blasted. Although it is very selective and allows for low dilution, since the most of the ore stays in the stope until mining is completed there is a delayed return on capital investments.

* Room and Pillar mining is commonly done in flat or gently dipping bedded ore bodies. Pillars are left in place in a regular pattern while the rooms are mined out. In many room and pillar mines, the pillars are taken out starting at the farthest point from the stope access, allowing the roof to collapse and fill in the stope. This allows a greater recovery as less ore is left behind in pillars.


In mines which use rubber tired equipment for coarse ore removal, the ore is removed from the stope (referred to as "mucked out" or "bogged") using center articulated vehicles (referred to as boggers or LHD [short for Load, Haul, Dump]). These pieces of equipment may operate using diesel or electric engines and resemble a low-profile front end loader.

The ore is then dumped into a truck to be hauled to the surface (in shallower mines). In deeper mines the ore is dumped down an ore pass (a vertical or near vertical excavation) where it falls to a collection level. On the collection level it may receive primary crushing via jaw crusher. The ore is then moved by conveyor belts, trucks or occasionally trains to the shaft to be hoisted to the surface in buckets or skips and emptied into bins beneath the surface headframe for transport to the mill.

In some cases the underground primary crusher feeds an inclined conveyor belt which delivers ore via an incline shaft direct to the surface. The ore is fed down ore passes, with mining equipment accessing the ore body via a decline from surface.


VUG. A cavity in a rock.

Mining Districts: A Concept Reborn
by Jim Foley


In the last ten years mining has come under increasing attack from extreme environmental, as well as tribal special interest groups and last, but not least, federal and state agencies. Most of the mining opposition today is centered around the small-scale miner. These miners number in the thousands and come from every walk of life. While many of these miners hold regular jobs and practice their mining as a supplement to their regular income, and some for purely recreational purposes, there are a large percentage of them who depend on mining as their sole income.

Mining benefits a very large support industry, which includes manufacturers of equipment as well as many other types of businesses that serve as the business community in the mostly rural areas of what is known as “gold country.” Many, if not most of these businesses depend heavily on miners dollars to carry them through the winter months when business slows down in their small communities. These are the businesses that keep small communities thriving. Their continued existence benefits not only miners, but also their respective communities. They are the mom and pop grocery stores, general stores, gas stations, repair shops, restaurants, motels and R.V. parks.

It is easy to see that anything that would ban or adversely affect mining can and does have a terribly devastating effect on our rural communities. In California a recent “suction dredge” mining ban in all state waters has caused extreme financial hardship on many rural businesses. Some will close because their owners say they cannot continue to stay open to serve their communities without the help of miner’s dollars; others have already closed because of this hardship.

Most of the present-day anti-mining sentiment is centered in the Northwest states of Washington, Oregon and California. The opposition to mining normally consists of well organized and well funded organizations. By contrast, miners are, for the most part, unorganized and lacking the funding needed to combat the assault on their mining rights and property.

While it is true that all natural resource users on our public lands are also being attacked by these very same special interest groups, miners are crucial to the success of the environmentalist’s agenda simply because mining is protected by an Act of Congress known by its federal designation: HR 365. This act was put in place in 1866, and last amended in 1872. It is now known as the Mining Law of 1872. If special interest groups can topple miners, who have an actual “right” to mine, then all natural resource users will be easy pickings.
Because of the very real threat to mining and miners, there has been a lot of talk among miners about the possibility of forming mining districts like the ones that were originally formed to unite miners and fight for our rights to mine, as Congress granted us. So far this has only been talk with no real direction or knowledge of how to go about forming one, or how it might be used for the good of all miners. Mining districts no longer exist, but that doesn’t mean they cannot exist once again to fulfill the unmet needs of the modern miner.

The South West Oregon Mining Association

The South West Oregon Mining Association (SWOMA) is an organization of miners and others based in South Western Oregon that are interested in defending our mining, property, water and other rights. SWOMA, with the help of very able and knowledgeable legal researchers among their members, have thoroughly researched the need and method for forming a mining district.

SWOMA began to put out feelers in the mining community to see if there was interest in forming a mining district. Fortunately there was a great deal of interest.

After widespread notice, on September 2, 2011 at their second fact-finding meeting, it was decided by those present to form a mining district. A vote was taken of those present, which was about 70 miners in attendance, coming from as far away as Indiana. The vote was unanimous in favor of forming the district.

As required by custom and law, the name of the new mining district needed to be determined. It was decided by vote to name the new district the Jefferson Mining District. The boundaries of the District will approximate the “abandoned” State of Jefferson boundaries, to include most of Southern Oregon and Northern California. Ida Reimann was named and voted the first Recorder for the Jefferson Mining District. Kerby Jackson was named and voted interim chairman pending formal structuring of District organization. Rules promulgation was tabled until organization Establishment. The initial purpose of the Jefferson Mining District will be to produce a federally authorized Coordination Plan, which miners throughout the district may use to assert and enforce the mining law.

What is Coordination?

Coordination is a federally mandated tool used by local governments to bring federal agencies to the table to discuss and align resource management plans with local needs as explained through a Coordination Plan. Coordination works well when the local government entity understands the subject and its issues. This is where our local governments fall short regarding mining and agency plans that affect mining. Local governments simply have no knowledge regarding this specialty subject matter. Therefore, they cannot write a Coordination Plan that outlines and protects miner’s special rights and property.

A mining district is a lawful governmental entity that stands on equal footing with any other governmental entity as far as demanding that federal agencies coordinate with the mining district.

Local governments that have implemented “coordination” status with federal management agencies are successfully fighting erosion of private property rights in their communities. The “coordination” status is authorized by almost every federal statute relating to management of land, resource, and environment. All the local government has to do is formally accept the congressional invitation to “coordinate,” and federal agencies have no choice but to agree.

What is this “coordination” factor, which elevates the involvement of local government in federal planning and management actions? The foundation for the concept is found in the Federal Land Policy Management Act, commonly known as FLPMA. Section 1712 of Title 43 of the United States Code requires that the Bureau of Land Management must coordinate its “land use inventory, planning, and management actions” with any local government that has engaged in land use planning for the federal lands managed by the federal agencies. This is where the Coordination Plan comes in. The Plan will enforce standard of the law for such things as ingress and egress.

No local government is better suited to write a Coordination Plan for miners than the actual miners who are affected by federal agency actions.

In this respect and for this purpose, the Jefferson Mining District was formed. The purpose of this new mining district is for the protection and advocation of miners and their rights and property under the mining law. Authoring, and then teaching miners how to enforce the district-wide Coordination Plan will be its initiating purpose. All that will remain in this regard is for miners within the District to step up, taking responsibility for protecting themselves, their property and their rights.

By the authority of the mining district, agencies must coordinate their plans with the mining district plan. Finally miners have a voice that cannot be ignored by agencies that have, up until this time, listened politely to miners concerns and then just as politely ignored both miners and the mining law. Increased mining district mobilization will bring more power to the miners, which will have a positive economic ripple effect into the larger community.

More information can be found on the Internet at: