A Little Bit, o info Bout Gold and Minerals
Gold is the most malleable and ductile metal. One ounce of gold can be beaten out to 300 ft2. Gold is a good conductor of electricity and heat. It is not affected by exposure to air or to most reagents. It is inert and a good reflector of infrared radiation. Gold is usually alloyed to increase its strength. Pure gold is measured in troy weight, but when gold is alloyed with other metals the term karat is used to express the amount of gold present.
1 troy ounce = 31.1034807 grams
1 troy ounce = 480 grains
1 troy ounce = 20 pennyweights
32.15 troy ounces = 1 kilogram
32,150 troy ounces = 1 metric ton (1,000 kilos)
Karats to Gold Percentage
10K .416 12K .500
DWT is an abbreviation for penny weight.
1 oz.= 20 DWT
Specific Gravity Of Minerals: The specific gravity of a substance is the ratio of its weight to the weight of an equal volume of water.
Water weight = 8.34 pounds per imperial gallon. 2.7 - rock
2.7 - quartz
4.2 - copper
4.3 - garnet
5.1 - pyrite -- 5.1 - magnetite
5.3 - hematite
7.3 - tin
7.5 - galena
7.9 - iron
10.5 - silver
11.3 - lead
13.6 - mercury
19.2 - gold
Magnesium - Mg
Aluminium - Al
Iron - Fe
Cobalt - Co
Nickel - Ni
Copper - Cu
Zinc - Zn
Molybdenum - Mo
Rhodium - Rh
Palladium - Pd
Silver - Ag
Cadmium - Cd
Indium - In
Tin - Sn
Tantalum - Ta
Tungsten - W
Iridium - Ir
Platinum - Pt
Gold - Au
ADIT. A nearly horizontal passage driven from the surface to the mine workings.
AIR DRILLING. Rotary drilling using compressed air.
ALLUVIAL DEPOSIT. Sometimes referred to as placer. Sand, gravel etc, removed from a parent rock by water, time and errosion and deposited at a distance location.
ANTICLINE. Upward fold or arch in the rock strata.
ASSAY. The testing of an ore to determine the content of valuable minerals. Can be Chemical, Spectrographic, or Fire Assay.
ASSESMENT WORK. Work that is required to maintain one property or claim. The value is set by government standards. Individual Claim owners and companies must spent a certain amount of dollars by, mapping, testing, trenching etc. or pay the government maintenance fees.
ATTITUDE. Direction and degree of a dip of a structure. This could be a vein, lode or zone of mineralisation. Some call it dip and strike.
AURIFEROUS. This means gold bearing material
BASAL TILL. Clay deposit material left along at the base of a glacier.
BASALT. Fine grained, darker-coloured igneous rock. Old lava beds that have hardened.
BASE METALS. Commercial (non precious) metals such as lead, zinc, copper or nickle.
BEDROCK. The solid base of earth under the over burden and soils or gravels.
BITUMINOUS COAL. A middle rank coal formed by pressure and heat on lignite. Usually has a high Btu value (british thermal unit) and sometimes know as soft coal.
BOREHOLE. The hole that is made from drilling a well, core etc.
BTU. British thermal unit. The amount of energy that is required to raise one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit.
CALORIFIC VALUE. The amount of heat that can be obtained from one pound of coal or oil measured in BTU's.
CAMBRIAN. The earliest period of the Palaeozoic era to which systems of rock may be assigned.
CARBONATES. Minerals consisting of carbonates of calcium, iron or magnesium.
CLAIM. Claims are parcels of land that are staked by companies or individuals for the purpose of exploring and mining. Depending on the area and countries they are measured off in different sizes of acreage.
CONCENTRATE. A product that has the valuable material after all the wasgte has been eliminated.
CORE. Sometimes called core sample. A sample of rock that has been drill out of the area of interest.
CRETACEOUS. A period in history from 130 to 60 million years ago.
CUT OFF. The lowest the grade of ore that can be mined profitably.
DEPOSIT. An area that has a quantity of ore or other material that is deemed to be mineable.
DEVONIAN. A period from about 400 to 360 million years ago.
DIAMOND DRILLING. A rotary drill which cuts by abrasion rather than percussion. The bit is of diamond tips.
DREDGING. A means of extracting gold bearing materials or any other material from under water.
ELUVIAL. Material that has been moved from it's source via time and water. Most placer mines are eluvial.
EXTRACTION. The process of taking out the good ore from the waste materials.
FAULT ZONE. A fault, instead of being a single clean fracture, may be a zone hundreds or thousands of feet wide. The fault zone consists of numerous interlacing small faults or a confused zone of gouge, breccia, or mylonite.
FERROUS. Any mineral that containing iron.
FISSURE. A crack or fracture in rocks.
FLOAT. Pieces rock which become separated from the main body due to time and weathering.
FLUME. Used by the old timers, flumes were built to divert water from a source to where the mining was taking place. Like old wooded aquaducts.
GEIGER COUNTER. A device used to find and sense radioactive mineral.
GEOCHEMICAL. The study of the chemical composition of rocks, soil and other sediments.
GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. The drilling surface rock outcroppings for the purpose of exploratory developement.
GRAB SAMPLE. Sample of rock or material grabbed at random to be analyzed.
IN SITU. In a natural or original position.
INDUCED POLARISATION. A geophysical prospecting method of passing an electrical current through the ground and measuring the effect of rocks and minerals in its path.
INDUSTRIAL MINERALS. Non metalic. Examples: Salts, silica, gravels etc.
INTERMEDIATE ROCKS. Igneous rocks containing between 52 and 66 per cent silica.Between the chemical composition of acid and basic rocks.
JIG. A machine used to collect concentates of ore by water pulsation.
LEACHING. A process of chemical extration of minerals from ore material. Example: Gold is extracted using the heap leach method.
LODE. Mineral deposit contained in solid rock.
ORE RESERVE. The amount of ore that is available for extraction.
OVERBURDEN. Material such us dirt, clay and sand that cover e surface area.
PALEOZOIC. The time between the Pre Cambrian and the Mesozoic.
PAYDIRT. The pay. The material washed in sluicing that contains the gold.
PERCUSSION DRILLING. A method of drilling process that involves hammering the drill bit down the hole.
PERMIAN. A time period from about 290 to 240 million years ago.
PLACER. Referred to mostly in gold. Mining the surface. Eluvial type mining.
PYRITES. A hard, heavy, shiny, yellow mineral, FeS2 or iron disulfide. generally Also called iron pyrites, mica pyrites, fool's gold, sulfur balls.
QUATERNARY. A time period dating from about 1.8 million years ago to the present.
ROTARY DRILLING. A drilling method where the drill pipe and bit is rotated and allowed to drill it's way down.
ROYALTIES. Money owed to the claim holder or owner. NSR (net smelter royalty)
SHAFT. A vertical excavation used for the purpose of opening a mine.
SHOOT. A concentration of mineral values.
SLAG. The waste product glass and gangue from smelting.
SLUICE. A long trough with riffles used to catch gold.
TAILINGS. Material left over after the rock has been processed of it's ore.
TERTIARY. A time dating back, 65 to 2 million years ago.
TROMMEL. A machine that washes and classifies placer material by rotation.
ULTRABASIC. Igneous rock containing less than 45 per cent silica.
ULTRAMAFIC. Igneous rock composed essentially of iron and magnesium.
VEIN. A fracture or crack in a rock that contains mineralized material.
VUG. A cavity in a rock.
In the last ten years mining has come under increasing attack from extreme environmental, as well as tribal special interest groups and last, but not least, federal and state agencies. Most of the mining opposition today is centered around the small-scale miner. These miners number in the thousands and come from every walk of life. While many of these miners hold regular jobs and practice their mining as a supplement to their regular income, and some for purely recreational purposes, there are a large percentage of them who depend on mining as their sole income.
Mining benefits a very large support industry, which includes manufacturers of equipment as well as many other types of businesses that serve as the business community in the mostly rural areas of what is known as gold country. Many, if not most of these businesses depend heavily on miners dollars to carry them through the winter months when business slows down in their small communities. These are the businesses that keep small communities thriving. Their continued existence benefits not only miners, but also their respective communities. They are the mom and pop grocery stores, general stores, gas stations, repair shops, restaurants, motels and R.V. parks.
It is easy to see that anything that would ban or adversely affect mining can and does have a terribly devastating effect on our rural communities. In California a recent suction dredge mining ban in all state waters has caused extreme financial hardship on many rural businesses. Some will close because their owners say they cannot continue to stay open to serve their communities without the help of miners dollars; others have already closed because of this hardship.
Most of the present-day anti-mining sentiment is centered in the Northwest states of Washington, Oregon and California. The opposition to mining normally consists of well organized and well funded organizations. By contrast, miners are, for the most part, unorganized and lacking the funding needed to combat the assault on their mining rights and property.
While it is true that all natural resource users on our public lands are also being attacked by these very same special interest groups, miners are crucial to the success of the environmentalists agenda simply because mining is protected by an Act of Congress known by its federal designation: HR 365. This act was put in place in 1866, and last amended in 1872. It is now known as the Mining Law of 1872. If special interest groups can topple miners, who have an actual right to mine, then all natural resource users will be easy pickings.
Because of the very real threat to mining and miners, there has been a lot of talk among miners about the possibility of forming mining districts like the ones that were originally formed to unite miners and fight for our rights to mine, as Congress granted us. So far this has only been talk with no real direction or knowledge of how to go about forming one, or how it might be used for the good of all miners. Mining districts no longer exist, but that doesnt mean they cannot exist once again to fulfill the unmet needs of the modern miner.
The South West Oregon Mining Association
The South West Oregon Mining Association (SWOMA) is an organization of miners and others based in South Western Oregon that are interested in defending our mining, property, water and other rights. SWOMA, with the help of very able and knowledgeable legal researchers among their members, have thoroughly researched the need and method for forming a mining district.
SWOMA began to put out feelers in the mining community to see if there was interest in forming a mining district. Fortunately there was a great deal of interest.
After widespread notice, on September 2, 2011 at their second fact-finding meeting, it was decided by those present to form a mining district. A vote was taken of those present, which was about 70 miners in attendance, coming from as far away as Indiana. The vote was unanimous in favor of forming the district.
As required by custom and law, the name of the new mining district needed to be determined. It was decided by vote to name the new district the Jefferson Mining District. The boundaries of the District will approximate the abandoned State of Jefferson boundaries, to include most of Southern Oregon and Northern California. Ida Reimann was named and voted the first Recorder for the Jefferson Mining District. Kerby Jackson was named and voted interim chairman pending formal structuring of District organization. Rules promulgation was tabled until organization Establishment. The initial purpose of the Jefferson Mining District will be to produce a federally authorized Coordination Plan, which miners throughout the district may use to assert and enforce the mining law.
What is Coordination?
Coordination is a federally mandated tool used by local governments to bring federal agencies to the table to discuss and align resource management plans with local needs as explained through a Coordination Plan. Coordination works well when the local government entity understands the subject and its issues. This is where our local governments fall short regarding mining and agency plans that affect mining. Local governments simply have no knowledge regarding this specialty subject matter. Therefore, they cannot write a Coordination Plan that outlines and protects miners special rights and property.
A mining district is a lawful governmental entity that stands on equal footing with any other governmental entity as far as demanding that federal agencies coordinate with the mining district.
Local governments that have implemented coordination status with federal management agencies are successfully fighting erosion of private property rights in their communities. The coordination status is authorized by almost every federal statute relating to management of land, resource, and environment. All the local government has to do is formally accept the congressional invitation to coordinate, and federal agencies have no choice but to agree.
What is this coordination factor, which elevates the involvement of local government in federal planning and management actions? The foundation for the concept is found in the Federal Land Policy Management Act, commonly known as FLPMA. Section 1712 of Title 43 of the United States Code requires that the Bureau of Land Management must coordinate its land use inventory, planning, and management actions with any local government that has engaged in land use planning for the federal lands managed by the federal agencies. This is where the Coordination Plan comes in. The Plan will enforce standard of the law for such things as ingress and egress.
No local government is better suited to write a Coordination Plan for miners than the actual miners who are affected by federal agency actions.
In this respect and for this purpose, the Jefferson Mining District was formed. The purpose of this new mining district is for the protection and advocation of miners and their rights and property under the mining law. Authoring, and then teaching miners how to enforce the district-wide Coordination Plan will be its initiating purpose. All that will remain in this regard is for miners within the District to step up, taking responsibility for protecting themselves, their property and their rights.
By the authority of the mining district, agencies must coordinate their plans with the mining district plan. Finally miners have a voice that cannot be ignored by agencies that have, up until this time, listened politely to miners concerns and then just as politely ignored both miners and the mining law. Increased mining district mobilization will bring more power to the miners, which will have a positive economic ripple effect into the larger community.
More information can be found on the Internet at: http://www.miningrights.org/